Grammar relates to the structural rules governing clear use of a language. Smooth, flowing sentences with clear meanings are contingent upon good grammar, spelling and punctuation; missing or misplaced punctuation can change the intended meaning of a sentence or make it obscure.
The English language is not static; it has changed over the centuries, many words becoming obsolete or acquiring a new meaning. And it continues to change, borrowing words from other languages and introducing new words, especially since the eighties, with the dawning of the digital and information eras. Notwithstanding these changes, grammar remains the anchor of the English language, constraining its drift into the murky gloom of ambiguity.
Writing isn’t easy. Even professional writers are known to suffer from writer’s block or argue about points of grammar. That should be reassuring for the rest of us.
In this blog I’m aiming to cover 26 points of grammar (from A–Z) that often cause confusion.
An apostrophe can indicate possession:
• The dog’s bone (one dog, one bone)
• The dogs’ bones (more than one dog, more than one bone)
It can also indicate a contraction, i.e., missing letters:
• We’re (we are) going to school (apostrophe indicates missing ‘a’)
• It’s (it is) a warm day (apostrophe indicates missing ‘i’)
An apostrophe is not required in the following sentences:
• The music of the 60s
• Its eyes were shining in the dark
B Because and Since
These words are not interchangeable, but it is not unusual to see since misused when referring to causation. Because refers to causation, whereas since refers to passage of time.
• Incorrect: Since you arrived early, we can select the best seats
• Correct: Because you arrived early, we can select the best seats
• Correct: Since your arrival, the sun has shone each day
C Continual and Continuous
This is a tricky one as the meanings are similar; however, continual means that something occurs regularly but with breaks between, while continuous means something occurs without any breaks.
• High-speed trains continually pass their home
• The river flows continuously towards the sea
D Different From/To/Than
I see this one misused regularly and so have to ensure I don’t miss it, especially different to. Although greater than and slower than are correct when using comparative adjectives, the word different is an adjective highlighting distinction; something differs from something else, so different from is correct.
• Incorrect: Methods of teaching differ from those used when I went to school – they are different than those I learnt • Incorrect: Methods of teaching differ from those used when I went to school – they are different to those I learnt • Correct: Methods of teaching differ from those used when I went to school – they are different from those I learnt
E Effect and Affect
Effect can be both a noun (result) and a verb (to bring about), whereas affect is almost always used as a verb meaning to influence. So it’s easy to see why these words cause some confusion.
• The effect (noun) of the sun on the skin can be detrimental
• His plan was to effect (verb) changes in the way the business was run
• Sunshine positively affects (verb) people’s moods
F Fewer and Less
These are often confused. Less refers to hypothetical quantity; fewer refers to actual numbers. The rule is if you can count it, use fewer; otherwise, use less.
• There were fewer (the number is known) entrants this year than last year
• I am less happy (no specific quantity) now the date has been changed
G Got and Have
I remember my English teacher finding the word got thoroughly distasteful; consequently, it tends to stick in my throat if I attempt to use it, and I confiscate it whenever possible. I am, therefore, not objective in expressing my opinion of this unpleasant little word. It is, of course, the past tense of get, which we use freely, but got has deservedly acquired a bad reputation. Visually, it’s ungainly and unattractive; and orally, it’s an alarming, choking sound, best buried and forgotten. How often do we hear, ‘I have got…’? Have is present tense; got is past tense, so they do not belong together. Usually, have is sufficient.
• Incorrect: I have got new shoes
• Correct: I have new shoes
• Correct: I got a good mark (but ‘I achieved a good mark’ surely sounds better )
H Hyphens and Dashes
They look similar, but they have different functions. Hyphens are used, without spaces, to join words, such as in compound adjectives and compound nouns:
• We stayed in a top-class hotel
• He caught sight of himself in the looking-glass
The dash most commonly used in the UK is the en-dash. This is used, without spaces, to show ranges:
• 2–3 dogs
• 6 p.m.–6 a.m.
It can also be used, with spaces, singly or in pairs:
• He told them to hurry – but it was too late
• She explained to the children – who found it difficult – that they must practise every day
I I, me, and myself
At the beginning of a sentence, this doesn’t present a problem:
• Correct: I walked in the park and met Stephen
• Correct: John and I met Stephen at the club
But when the phrase is at the end of a sentence, me replaces I:
• Incorrect: Stephen met I at the club
• Incorrect: Stephen met myself at the club
• Correct: Stephen met me at the club
• Incorrect: Stephen met John and I at the club
• Incorrect: Stephen met John and myself at the club
• Correct: Stephen met John and me at the club
A common error would be, ‘Stephen met John and myself at the club’ or, ‘Stephen met John and I at the club’. This confusion is reduced when the second person (John in this case) is removed; i.e., we’re unlikely to say, ‘Stephen met myself at the club’ or ‘Stephen met I at the club’. The easy way to know how to phrase it, therefore, is to imagine that the object of the sentence is only one person.
The word myself is a reflexive pronoun:
• I kept the secret to myself
• I saw myself in the photograph
J Jimjams, Jim-Jams and Jim Jams
Used as a colloquialism, the traditional meaning of jimjams refers to a state of nervous restlessness, usually associated with mental health: peculiarities, depression or tremors linked with withdrawal from excessive alcohol consumption. Today, jim jams or jim-jams are usually used colloquially to refer to pyjamas (British spelling) or pajamas (US spelling).
K Kind of
This is often used in place of rather, but should be avoided in anything other than an informal style of writing.
• Incorrect: It’s kind of dark in here
• Correct: It’s rather dark in here
• Incorrect: I want a kind of surprise party for her birthday
• Correct: I want something like a surprise party for her birthday
L Lay and Lie
The transitive verb lay, which requires a direct subject and at least one object, is often confused with the intransitive verb lie, which does not need an object. The present and past tenses of lay are lay and laid, while the present and past tenses of lie are lie and lay.
• Lay – present tense: I lay the vase on the table and sit down
• Lay – past tense: Last week, I laid the vase on the table
• Lie – present tense: The valley lies between two high hills
• Lie – past tense: The valley lay between two high hills
M Misplaced Modifiers
The relationship of words is indicated by their position in a sentence. Misplaced words can result in ambiguity.
• Incorrect: Visible between the clouds, her father pointed to the plane
• Correct: Her father pointed to the plane, which was visible between the clouds
In the example above, misplaced father becomes the modifier, indicating that father, rather than the plane, is visible between the clouds. The modifier should be positioned next to the word it needs to modify.
N Number Consistency
a) A subject and its corresponding verb should be consistent in number.
• Incorrect: A range of suggestions were put forward
• Correct: A range of suggestions was put forward
In the above example, range is singular, so the singular verb was must be used.
b) A pronoun must agree in number with its antecedent. This can pose something of a dilemma in the English language.
• Incorrect: Someone left their coat on the floor
• Correct: Someone left his/her coat on the floor
Unless the gender is known, only the clumsy his/her option is available to the politically correct.
O Oxford Comma
Contrary to conventional UK practice, which excludes this comma unless it is necessary to avoid ambiguity, the Oxford comma comes before the last item in a list of three or more.
• Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (Oxford Comma)
• Monday, Wednesday and Friday (more general UK convention)
To avoid ambiguity, a comma may be necessary when an item includes a pair, such as in the following sentence:
• She studied English language and English literature and French
This would suggest that she studied three subjects. A comma would help to clarify that English language and literature was studied as one subject:
• She studied English language and English literature, and French
P Principle and Principal
Two words that are easily confused. However, principle refers to a moral belief or rule that helps distinguish between right and wrong; whereas principal refers to a person who is first in rank, such as a school principal. (Maybe remember this by linking the ‘a’ ‘in principal’ with A-grade and school principal.)
Q Quotation Marks
Quotation marks indicate words that are actually spoken, but reported speech, which is often introduced with the word that, quotation marks are not used.
• He asked, ‘What time does the train arrive?’ (actual speech)
• He asked what time the train would leave (reported speech)
• She said, ‘I’ve already seen the film.’ (actual speech)
• She said that she had already seen the film (reported speech)
R Run-on Sentence or Comma Splice
A run-on sentence joins two independent clauses without punctuation or the appropriate conjunction. A comma splice is similar, but uses a comma to join two clauses that have no conjunction. There are different ways to correct such sentences.
• Incorrect: He was the team captain he played twice a week (run-on)
• Incorrect: He was the team captain, he played twice a week (comma splice)
• Correct: He was the team captain. He played twice a week (two sentences)
• Correct: He was the team captain; he played twice a week (semi-colon)
• Correct: He was the team captain and he played twice a week (conjunction)
• Correct: Because he was the team captain he played twice a week (subordinating conjunction)
• Correct: He was the team captain; therefore, he played twice a week (semi-colon and transitional word)
S Split Infinitive
There is no grammatical rule regarding splitting the infinitive; however, some people react strongly to its use in formal writing. Nevertheless, the split infinitive has a place. It can be useful when choosing to stress an adverb; e.g., to precariously balance rather than to balance precariously. Abiding rigidly to the practice of avoiding the split infinitive can result in an overly formal writing style, and
‘I would love to instantly arrive without travelling’
captures the momentum more so than
‘I would love to arrive instantly without travelling.’
Good judgement is more useful here than adherence to rules.
T That and Which
That restricts, which qualifies. Not surprisingly, I rarely proofread text in which these two words are not confused.
‘That’ is a restrictive pronoun. ‘Which’ is used to introduce a relative clause and is preceded by a comma. The relative clause is extra (or parenthetical) information allowing qualifiers that may not be essential to the sentence. This sounds confusing and is easier to understand with examples.
e.g. There were several buses. The bus that broke down was John’s.
Incorrect: John was on the bus which broke down.
Correct: John was on the bus that broke down.
e.g. There was one bus and it broke down. John happened to be on it.
Correct: The bus, which John was on (relative clause), broke down.
U Under and Below
Under is used more often than below and usually refers to three-dimensional objects; under a bridge, under a canopy, under a tree. It is also used when referring to layers of clothing; under a jacket, or for numbers; under an hour, under a pound.
Below is used to refer to the level of something, as in ‘the temperature was below zero’, ‘the terms and conditions are printed below’, ‘the gym is located below the restaurant’.
V Voice of the Author
The voice of the author is what makes the author unique; the author’s personality and character are expressed in the writing technique. An editor must respect the individuality of the author. This requires striking a balance between ensuring text is grammatically correct and maintaining the author’s writing style. This may be a delicate balance. With the exception of formal writing, an engaging writing style that breaks grammatical rules may sometimes be preferable to highly edited text.
W Who and Whom
Who is a subjective pronoun, used when the pronoun is the subject of a clause. Whom is an objective pronoun, used when the pronoun is the object of a clause. The use of who or whom will depend, therefore, on whether it refers to the subject or the object of a sentence. There is a simple rule for working out which to use:
he = who
him = whom
Do we say, ‘Who or whom scored the last goal?’ The goal was scored by him, so we know it is ‘Whom scored the last goal’.
Do we say, ‘She asked who/whom the story was about’? The story was about him, so it should be ‘She asked whom the story was about.’
Do we say, ‘We know who/whom let the dogs out’? He let the dogs out, so it should be ‘We know who let the dogs out’.
X X Rated, Well Known, Well Made
Sometimes, these words are hyphenated, and sometimes they’re not. Used without a hyphen they are known as postpositive adjectives. In the English language, adjectives usually come before the noun they modify:
• It was a beautiful day
• It was haunting music
When two words are combined to form a compound adjective (a single adjective made up of more than one word) that is placed before the noun they modify, they are hyphenated:
• They watched an X-rated film
• He was a well-known musician
• She purchased well-made furniture for her new home
However, if the two words appear in a postpositive position (after the noun they modify), they are not hyphenated:
• The film they watched was X rated
• The musician was well known
• The furniture she purchased for her home was well made
Y Your and You’re
Your is a possessive adjective, which indicates that something belongs to someone; while you’re is a contraction of you are. Unless you can expand you’re to you are, it is incorrect:
• Incorrect: The teacher has marked you’re homework
• Correct: The teacher has marked your homework
• Incorrect: Your on holiday until the end of the week
• Correct: You’re on holiday until the end of the week
Z From A to Z and A–Z
Hyphens and dashes have been covered earlier; here, I wish only to highlight that for a span of years or any range of groups or numbers, it is incorrect to use a mix of words and en-dashes.
• Incorrect: from A–Z
• Correct: from A to Z
• Incorrect: between A–Z
• Correct: between A and Z